🖐 Slotted optical switch - Wikipedia

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Optical Switches are available at Mouser Electronics. Mouser offers Optical Switches, Reflective, Photo IC Output SMD Reflective Optical Sensor. Optek / TT​.


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Choose from transmissive optical sensor, reflective optical sensors, photointerrupter, interrupter & photologic slotted optical switches at Future Electronics.


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photo interruptor sensor circuit as a switch

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Choose from transmissive optical sensor, reflective optical sensors, photointerrupter, interrupter & photologic slotted optical switches at Future Electronics.


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Electronics Basics: Opto Interrupters

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Optical sensors. Figure 1a shows a slotted optical switch. An LED is mounted in a plastic housing, facing a phototransistor, but separated by a gap. If something.


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Transmissive optical sensors from old printers and scanners

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Buy products related to optical sensor products and see what customers say about optical BALITENSEN Optical Endstop with 1M Cable Optical Switch Sensor.


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Optical sensors. Figure 1a shows a slotted optical switch. An LED is mounted in a plastic housing, facing a phototransistor, but separated by a gap. If something.


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The slotted optical switch, sometimes known as opto switch or optical switch but not to be confused with the optical component, is a device comprising a.


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The slotted optical switch, sometimes known as opto switch or optical switch but not to be confused with the optical component, is a device comprising a.


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Gaming Mice - Linus Explains Optical Sensors

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Optical sensors. Figure 1a shows a slotted optical switch. An LED is mounted in a plastic housing, facing a phototransistor, but separated by a gap. If something.


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5 Advantages of Optical Level Sensors over Float Switches - SST Sensing

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Optical sensors. Figure 1a shows a slotted optical switch. An LED is mounted in a plastic housing, facing a phototransistor, but separated by a gap. If something.


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The Razer Optical Mouse Switch

Mechanical instability Mechanical jitter can cause strange results with reflective sensors. I saw a system once that used a reflective sensor to count rotations by looking at a shiny strip on a flat black motor shaft. Speed The phototransistor in any optical sensor is fairly slow. Failed LEDs In systems where safety is an issue, be sure that a failed sensor doesn't cause the system to operate in an unsafe manner. Optical switches are available with darlington transistor outputs, which often have a CTR higher than 1. This allows the software to look for changes in the output level, rather than depending on the ability of the part to generate digital logic levels. Sensors provide the windows through which microprocessor-based systems can observe their environment. If your sensor is aimed at a surface that switches between gray and black, you will not get the same CTR you get with the white reference used by the manufacturer. In the motor speed application, what happens if a film of oil coats the flat black portion of the shaft? This limits the maximum speed that can be detected. Optical isolators An optical isolator also called an optoisolator or optocoupler houses an LED and a phototransistor in a package like an IC. Say you use a slotted switch to determine if a motor is turning. A typical CTR for a slotted switch is 0. The CTR of a reflective sensor varies from device to device and with the application. A flag on the door drops into the slot and blocks the light when the door is closed. Figure 1: Optical switches. Slotted switches are also used as indicators when a door or hood is open or closed. For complete operator safety, the machine isn't allowed to start unless both sensors are in the correct hood closed state. Reflective sensors also have a CTR. Typical applications include sensing when a door is open or closed, or measuring the speed of a rotating shaft. The amount of current generated in the phototransistor collector for a given current through the LED is called the current transfer ratio CTR. Machine vibration would then generate enormous numbers of interrupts to the processor, effectively shutting it down. This article looks at these two broad classes of sensors, their applications, and how they interface to processors. One way to determine the range of CTR is to measure the CTR in your application, then compare that to the CTR of the same sensor using the same white reference used by the sensor manufacturer. The CTR of a reflective sensor is normally established with a standard reflective surface, placed at the specified focal length from the sensor. An optical isolator isn't used to detect mechanical motion. Figure 4 shows how an optoisolator can be used to pass signals from one circuit to another. A smaller resistor would provide better noise immunity lower impedance and possibly faster speed, but wouldn't work with all optical sensors. You occasionally need to know if the LED in an optical sensor has failed. You could envision a similar situation with a slotted sensor, if the flag that interrupts the light path only partially obscures the phototransistor. Figure 3: Detecting a failed LED. A failed LED then looks like an open hood and everything is safe. Reflective sensors are frequently used to sense objects of differing types. The current transfer ratio has several implications when you want to interface an optical sensor to a processor. Your design has to accommodate the actual CTR resulting from your application of the sensor. A reflective sensor is typically used to detect motor motion by painting or anodizing the motor shaft black, then placing a strip of reflective material on the shaft. A common use for optoisolators is to isolate a high-voltage circuit from the microprocessor that controls it. Slotted and reflective optical sensors share a schematic symbol, which is shown in Figure 1c. Optical sensors Figure 1a shows a slotted optical switch. Although a disconnected LED is much more likely than a shorted LED, you could also add a second comparator to detect the shorted condition. The optical isolator is sealed, so there's no way to break the light path. The transistor must be able to sink enough current to ensure a valid logic low level. The CTR is sometimes specified as a ratio and sometimes in a table that shows the collector current for various values of LED current. For this to work, Vcc must be greater than 3V. The sensor system must be designed to handle all the types of material used. First, if you want to connect the switch directly to a digital input as shown in Figure 2, the transistor output has to swing between valid logic levels. If the LED opens, the voltage at the anode will rise to Vcc. Figure 3 illustrates a simple way to detect a failed LED. This will give you an idea of the CTR range you can expect to see. The paper has varying quality, color, and reflective properties. You then connect the phototransistor emitter to ground and pull the collector up with a resistor. Both types also have some common characteristics that must be taken into account when designing them into a system. Instead it provides electrical isolation between two electrical circuits. Slotted switches are often used to detect motor speed by placing a slotted wheel on the motor shaft; as the shaft rotates, it alternately blocks and unblocks the light path. When the LED is on, it will have a voltage drop around 1. Current transfer ratio The LED and phototransistor pair have limited gain, usually less than one. The reference voltage would be around 0. To ensure that the phototransistor saturates, the value of the pullup resistor is limited. A typical example would be a safety hood that must be closed before the machine can start. If the drive LED in a sensor is software-controlled, the software must take the turnon and turnoff delay into account when reading the output of the sensor. The software must ignore the comparator output when the LED is turned off. Good hardware design, such as the use of hysteresis in comparator circuits, will minimize these problems. In a case like this, use a flag that instead clears the path when the hood is closed. In the example, where a reflective sensor generated excessive interrupts, the software might have a timer that keeps track of the time between interrupts. If the sensor interrupt service routine is exited and immediately reentered, the interrupt service routine could disable the interrupt and set a flag to tell the rest of the system that something is wrong. What does that do to the sensor's ability to detect rotation? An LED is mounted in a plastic housing, facing a phototransistor, but separated by a gap. Figure 1b shows a reflective sensor, which works similarly. Optical and magnetic sensors are used to detect the presence, absence, or motion of an object. Musical instrument digital interface MIDI technology uses optical isolation to interconnect electronic musical instruments, preventing problems caused by differing ground potentials. When the flag is blocking the sensor, the transistor is off and the output is high. Reflective sensors require some additional considerations. The problem with this approach is that an open or disconnected LED would appear the same to the system as a closed hood. Occasionally, the motor would stop with the shiny strip right at the edge of the detection area for the sensor. The circuit as shown is for an LED that's on all the time. The ground and power connections for the system may be completely separate.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Since the CTR of an optical sensor has a wide range, you may want to connect the output of the sensor to an analog-to-digital converter ADC. The phototransistor in a reflective sensor picks up reflected light from whatever is in front of the switch. In some cases, you may have to add hardware or software or both to detect unusual conditions. If the motor appears to stop, you might need to know if the motor is jammed or if the sensor LED has failed or been disconnected so you can display the correct diagnostic message. The idea is that all the dangerous moving parts are under the hood, so if the hood is closed you know the operator's hands are out of the way. The output of this sensor circuit generated an interrupt. Typical numbers are 8ms turnon time and 50ms turnoff time. Since the sensor depends on reflected light, the CTR is dependent on the type of surface and the distance of that surface from the sensor. A good example would be paper in a high-speed sorting mechanism. If you want to use a smaller pullup, you could either use an optical switch with a higher CTR or drive the LED with more current. The system might then try to start with the hood open. Figure 4: An optical isolator. You can also use this method for a switched LED, but you've got to take the voltage drop across the switching transistor into account when selecting the reference voltage. This could leave the phototransistor halfway on, causing an ambiguous output. Most reflective sensors have a focal length, which is the optimum distance for the object to be detected to be placed, usually between 0. Where would embedded systems be without them? The CTR is dependent on the LED and phototransistor characteristics and can vary widely from one optical sensor to the next. As the shaft rotates, the sensor sees no reflection from the part of the shaft that is black, then high reflection from the reflective strip. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Sensors help microprocessor-based systems find their bearings. A comparator senses the voltage at the LED anode. You could solve this problem with a slotted optical switch and a flag that blocks the light path when the hood is closed. If something moves into the gap, it blocks the light path between the LED and the phototransistor. An even safer method would use two sensors, one that's blocked when the hood is open and one that's blocked when the hood is closed.